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Reading comprehension -TOEFL- Lesson 101 (Đọc hiểu -TOEFL- Lesson 101)

Reading and answers the question:

   The United States court system, as part of the federal system of government,
is characterized by dual hierarchies : there are both state and federal
court. Each state has its own system of courts, sometimes intermediate
courts of appeal, and a state supreme court. The federal court system
5 consists of a series of trial courts (called district courts) serving
relatively small geographic regions (there is at least one for every
state) a tier of circuit court of appeal that hear appeals form many
district courts in a particular geographic region, and the Supreme
court of the United states. The two court systems are to some extent
10 overlapping, in that certain kinds of disputes (such as a claim that
a state law is in violation of the Constitution may be initiated
in either system. They are also to some extent hierarchical, for
the federal system stands above the state system in that litigants
(persons engaged in lawsuits) who lose their cases in the state supreme
15 court may appeal their cases to the Supreme Court of the United States.

Thus, the typical court case begins in a trial court - a court of
general jurisdiction- in the or federal system. Most cases go no
further than the trial court : for example, the criminal defendant
is convicted (by a trial or a guilty plea) and sentenced by the court
21 and the case ends; the personal injury suit results in a judgment
by a trial court (or an out-of- court settlement by the parties while
the court suit is pending) and the parties leave the court system.
But sometimes the losing party at the trial court cares enough about
the cause that the matter does not end there. In these cases, the
26 "loser" at the trial court may appeal to the next higher court.
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?




2. According to the passage, district court are also known as




3. In the last sentence of the first paragraph, the phrase "engaged in" could best be replaced by which of the following?




4. The passage indicates that litigants who lose their cases in the state trial court may take them to a




5. It can be inferred from the passage that typical court cases are




6. Which of the following is most likely to be the subject of the paragraph following the passage?





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