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Reading comprehension -TOEFL- Lesson 109 (Đọc hiểu -TOEFL- Lesson 109)

Reading and answers the question:

   Glands manufacture and secrete necessary substances. Exocrine glands
secrete their products through ducts, but endocrine glands, or ductless
glands, release their products directly into the bloodstream.

5 One important endocrine gland is the thyroid gland. It is in the neck
and has two lobes, one on each side of the windpipe. The thyroid
gland collects iodine from the blood and produces thyroxine, an important
hormone, which it stores in an inactive form. When thyroxine is needed
by the body, the thyroid gland excretes it directly into the bloodstream.
10 Thyroxine is combined in the body cells with other chemicals and
affects many functions of the body.

The thyroid gland may be underactive or overactive, resulting in problems,
An underactive thyroid causes hypothyroidism, while an overactive
15 one causes hyperthyroidism. The former problem called myxedema in
adults and cretinism in children, causes the growth process to slow
down. A cretin's body and mind do not grow to their full potential.
Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, results in extreme nervousness,
an increase in heart action, and other problems.
Either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism may result in goiter, or
an enlarged thyroid gland. A goiter will appear when the body is
not getting enough iodine. Goiter is less common today, since most
people use iodized salt.
1. The thyroid gland is called an endocrine gland

2. A cretin is

3. Which of the following is a probable result of myxedema?

4. A goiter is

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