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Reading comprehension -TOEFL- Lesson 155 (Đọc hiểu -TOEFL- Lesson 155)

Reading and answers the question: This rapid transcontinental settlement and these new urban industrial
circumstances of the last half of the 19th century were accompanied
by the development of a national literature of great abundance and
variety. New themes, new forms, new subjects, new regions, new authors,
5 new audiences all emerged in the literature of this half century.
As a result, at the onset of World War I, the spirit and substance
of American literature had evolved remarkably, just as its center
of production had shifted from Boston to New York in the late 1880s
and the sources of its energy to Chicago and the Midwest. No longer
10 was it produced, at least in its popular forms, in the main by solemn,
typically moralistic men from New England and the Old South; no longer
were polite, well-dressed, grammatically correct, middle-class young
people the only central characters in its narratives; no longer were
these narratives to be set in exotic places and remote times; no
15 longer, indeed, were fiction, poetry, drama, and formal history the
chief acceptable forms of literary expression; no longer, finally,
was literature read primarily by young, middle class women. In sum,
American literature in these years fulfilled in considerable measure
the condition Walt Whitman called for in1867 in describing Leaves
20 of Grass: it treats, he said of his own major work, each state and
region as peers "and expands from them, and includes the world ...
connecting an American citizen with the citizens of all nations."
At the same time, these years saw the emergence of what has been
designated "the literature of argument," powerful works in sociology,
25 philosophy, psychology, many of them impelled by the spirit of exposure
and reform. Just as America learned to play a role in this half century
as an autonomous international political, economic, and military
power, so did its literature establish itself as a producer of major
works.1. The main idea of this passage is

2. It can be inferred from lines 1-3 that the previous passage probably discussed

3. The word "evolved" in line 7 is closest in meaning to

4. The word "it" in line 10 refers to

5. The word "exotic" in line 14 is closest in meaning to

6. The author uses the word "indeed" in line 15 for what purpose?

7. The phrase "these years" in line 18 refers to

8. It can be inferred from the passage that Walt Whitman

9. All of the following can be inferred from the passage about the new literature EXCEPT

10. This passage would probably be read in which of the following academic courses?

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